Introduction: Alfrest is a rapidly progressing and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, wasting, and eventually respiratory failure. At present, ALS lacks efficient and accurate treatment drugs, single drug or targeted strategy is not effective, the patient's disease progression and survival impact is not obvious.

 

In the case of sexual neurodegenerative diseases, it is a core link to slow or prevent nerve loss by enhancing nerve protection. In recent years, stem cells have provided new ideas and made great progress in the treatment of ALS, and researchers have confirmed that stem cells have neuroprotective effects and are a feasible solution for maintaining and cultivating motor neurons.

 


First, the basic research of stem cell repair frostbite

(1) Differentiation: Stem cells are a group of primitive cells with the potential for multi-differentiation, which can be differentiated into motor neuron-like cells, replacing degraded or dead neurons. When Zeng X et al. transplant interstable stem cells into the central nervous system, they can express neurons or glial markers.

(2) Secretion: Kumar A's experiments show that stem cells can secrete 6 different neurotrophic factors (NTF) to promote the survival of diseased motor neurons and repair damaged motor neurons. 6 NTFs include brain-derived neurotrophic factors, neurogrowth factors, neurotrophic factors 3, vascular endothelial growth factors, insulin-like growth factors-1 and glial cytogenic neurogrowth factors.

(3) Immunity: ALS patients often have neuroinflammation. Kwon MS et al. cultured stem cells with peripheral blood mononucleosis cells in ALS patients, and Tregs cell induction increased, γ increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon, leukocyte mediate-4, leukocyte interleukin-10, etc.

Second, stem cells to repair the animal experiment of frostbite

Lab 1: Marconi et al. transplanted stem cells from ALS model mice and found that stem cells regulate the secretion of local glial cells through side secretion mechanisms, play a neuroprotective role, improve the neurofunctional state of mice, and prevent further deterioration of symptoms.

 

Experiment II: Forostyak et al. model exploration shows that 4 weeks after stem cell transplantation ALS model rat movement and grip has a significant impact, life span from 3.6 days to 190 days, suggesting that stem cells can effectively extend the life of ALS rats.

 


Third, stem cell repair frostbite clinical trials

Early clinical trials of the potential of STEM cell therapy for ALS have been launched, and a growing number of studies have tested a large number of subjects in more detail. It has been reported that patients receiving stem cell therapy have slowed down and improved their quality of life compared with standard-to-treated patients.

Trial 1: In 2017, Syková et al. treated 23 patients with frostbite with mesotopenic stem cells as transplanted cells, and after 3 months, the results were evaluated: alS function scale scores decreased, 75% of subjects had stable power scale (WS) values, and about 80% of hard lung capacity (FVC) values remained stable for 9 months.

Trial 2: Berry et al. conducted a Phase II randomized double-blind multicenter stem cell clinical trial in which researchers used interstitial stem cells to induce the secretion of neurotrophic factor NTF to transplant MSC-NTF cells in 48 subjects, and during the follow-up of the following six months, the ALS functional assessment scale (ALSFRS-R) slope changed and the subjects' disease progress improved.

In summary, stem cells can repair damaged motor neurons, ALS treatment has a positive prospects for development, worthy of further clinical exploration and application!
Stem cells: much more than just anti-aging Stem cell therapy effectively curbs the progressive development of frostbite